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Scapular dyskinesis is characterized by a visible change in the normal position and movement of the shoulder bone (scapula). If left untreated, it can lead to shoulder injury. Shoulder dyskinesis is commonly associated with another condition, glenohumeral internal-rotation deficits (GIRD), in which the patient finds it difficult to rotate the arm in an internal arc. Both are classic conditions of overhead throwing sports like baseball and tennis. Scapular dyskinesis can be caused due to structural abnormalities in the spine, shoulder joint injury, nerve injury, proprioceptive dysfunction and muscle tightness or weakness. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit is another causative agent for shoulder dyskinesis. GIRD, in turn, occurs due to repeated throwing action associated with certain sports. Shoulder dyskinesis shows symptoms of pain, weakness, excessive movement and loss of range of the shoulder joint, winging scapula, and the inability to lift your arms. Symptoms of GIRD include vague shoulder pain, sometimes no pain at all, with reduced performance in throwing action. On physical examination, the patient shows decreased internal rotation and increased external rotation of the shoulder. Your surgeon will gain a detailed history of your physical activities and carefully examine your shoulder in motion. Since GIRD is an associated condition, your surgeon will also examine internal and external rotation of the shoulder. The condition can be managed and treated through physical therapy. A range of exercises, including electric stimulation and massages are recommended to address pain and tissue repair, muscle strengthening, activation of the joint’s range of movement, release of muscle tightness, strengthening shoulder and stabilization of joint, and shoulder proprioception.

Bursitis refers to inflammation of one or more of the shoulder bursae, which are fluid-filled sacks that help with cushioning in the shoulder joint. Bursitis can be treated conservatively using anti-inflammatory medication, steroidal injections, and/or physical therapy. If pain and inflammation persists, surgery may be required to remove the inflamed bursa.

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