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For more in-depth, peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, video presentations and more on these topics authored by Dr. Cole, please visit the Academic Resource Library.

Normal Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

How does the Shoulder joint work?


Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

Major injury to the tendons that stabilize the shoulder can result in a rotator cuff tear. Minimally invasive arthroscopic techniques can  be used to repair the rotator cuff.

For more information about Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair, click on the tabs below.


Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization

Arthroscopic stabilization is a surgical procedure to treat chronic instability of shoulder joint. The shoulder is the most flexible joint in our body making it more susceptible to instability and injury. Shoulder instability occurs when the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) dislocates from the glenoid (socket) as a result of a sudden injury or overuse. The repeated dislocation of the humerus out of its socket is called chronic shoulder instability. A tear in the labrum or rotator cuff and a ligament tear in the front of the shoulder (a Bankart lesion) may lead to repeated shoulder dislocations. Shoulder instability is often treated by the technique called stabilization which can be performed arthroscopically.

For more information about Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization, click on the tabs below.


Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, or adhesive capsulitis, is a painful condition with limited movement because inflammation. 

For more information about Frozen Shoulder, click on the tabs below.


Shoulder Arthroscopy

Shoulder arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into the shoulder joint. The benefits of arthroscopy are smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

For more information about Shoulder Arthroscopy, click on the tabs below.


Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder, or rotator cuff tendinitis. It is the condition of inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint caused by motor vehicle accidents, trauma, or sports such as tennis, baseball, swimming and weight lifting.

For more information about Shoulder Impingement, click on the tabs below.


Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocations of the shoulder joint. A dislocation occurs when the head of the humerus (the ball portion) partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid (the socket portion) of the shoulder. A partial dislocation is referred as subluxation, whereas the complete separation is called dislocation.

For more information about Shoulder Instability, click on the tabs below.


Shoulder Joint Replacement

In a shoulder replacement, damaged portions of the humerus (upper arm bone) and scapula (shoulder blade) are removed and replaced with artificial components in order to reduce pain and increase mobility. The shoulder is a “ball and socket” joint, and depending on the indication for a shoulder replacement, both components of the joint do not always need to be replaced.

For more information about Shoulder Joint Replacement, click on the tabs below.


Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement

Reverse total shoulder replacement, is an advanced surgical technique specifically designed for rotator cuff tear arthropathy, a condition where the patient suffers from both shoulder arthritis and a rotator cuff tear.

For more information about Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement, click on the tabs below.


Ligament Reconstruction

Ligament reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct a torn ligament using a graft or artificial prosthesis. Ligaments are tough, non-stretchable fibers that hold your bones together. Ligament reconstruction is performed to improve joint function and stability and may be indicated for shoulder, elbow and knee injuries.

Find out more about Ligament Reconstruction with the following link.


Corticosteroid Injections Information and Instructions

Dr. Cole and his team have recommended for you to have a corticosteroid injection. Injecting cortisone can quickly treat an inflamed region/joint and relieve pain. Typically, there are two components of this injection: an injectable steroid and a local anesthetic. The injection can be viewed as both diagnostic and therapeutic. Please see attached PDF for details pertaining to this injection.

Corticosteroid Injections Information and Instructions


Surgical Procedures in 3D Animation


Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Brian J. Cole, M.D., M.B.A.

The Brian Cole MD Knee Guide and Shoulder Guide are your own personalized injury APP's for your pocket. These APP's provide users with detailed information, treatment and identification of the most common injuries.

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