Brian Cole, MD, MBA is an expert in shoulder, elbow and knee surgery. He has a dedicated clinical staff and assistants to assist in delivering high-quality and expert care.
If you wish to be advised on the most appropriate treatment, please call (708) 236-2701 to schedule an appointment or click here to request an appointment online.
Sports injuries occur when playing indoor or outdoor sports or while exercising. Sports injuries can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. The most common sports injuries are sprains and strains, fractures, and dislocations.
The most common treatment recommended for injury is rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE).
Some of the measures that are followed to prevent sports related injuries include:
For more information on specific common sports injuries, visit the Shoulder, Elbow and Knee sections of this site.
Sports Medicine Topics
Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Articular Cartilage is the white tissue lining the end of bones where these bones connect to form joints. Cartilage acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement. An injury to the joint may damage this cartilage which cannot repair on its own. Cartilage can be damaged with increasing age, normal wear and tear, or trauma. Damaged cartilage cannot cushion the joints during movement and the joints may rub over each other causing severe pain and inflammation.
Cartilage restoration is a surgical procedure where orthopedic surgeons stimulate the growth of new cartilage that restores the normal function. Arthritis can be delayed or prevented through this procedure.
Several techniques are employed for cartilage restoration including dietary supplements, microfracture, drilling, abrasion arthroplasty, osteochondral autograft, and allograft transplantation.
Dietary supplements: Dietary supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin are the non-surgical treatment options for cartilage restoration. Chrondroitin sulphate and glucosamine are naturally occurring substances in the body that prevent degradation of cartilage and promote formation of new cartilage. Chrondroitin sulphate and glucosamine obtained from animal sources are available as over the counter products and are recommended for cartilage restoration. Various other nutritional supplements are also recommended, such as S-Adenosyl-Methionine, methylsulfonylmethane, and combination calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.
Microfracture: In this method numerous holes are created in the injured joint surface using a sharp tool. This procedure stimulates healing response by creating new blood supply. Blood supply results in growth of new cartilage.
Drilling: In this method a drilling instrument is used to create holes in the injured joint surface. Drilling holes creates blood supply and stimulates growth of new cartilage. Although the method is similar to microfracture, it is less precise and the heat produced during drilling may damage other tissues.
Abrasion Arthroplasty: A high-speed metal-like object is used to remove the damaged cartilage. This procedure is performed using an arthroscope.
Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation: Healthy cartilage tissue (graft) is taken from the bone that bears less weight and is transferred to the injured joint place. This method is used for smaller cartilage defects.
Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation: A cartilage tissue (graft) is taken from a donor and transplanted to the site of the injury. Allograft technique is recommended if larger part of cartilage is damaged.
Autologous Chondrocyte implantation: In this method a piece of healthy cartilage from another site is removed by arthroscopy and then cultured in the laboratory. The cultured cells form a larger patch which is then implanted in the damaged part by open surgery.
Osteoarticular transfer system (OATS): Osteoarticular transfer system (OATS) is a surgical procedure to treat isolated cartilage defects which are usually 10 to 20mm in size. The procedure involves transfer of cartilage plugs taken from the non-weight bearing areas of the joint and transferring into the damaged areas of the joint.
This procedure is not indicated for wide spread damage of cartilage as seen in osteoarthritis.
The procedure is usually performed using arthroscopy. During the procedure the plugs taken are usually larger and therefore only one or two plugs are needed to fill the area of cartilage damage. The area of damaged cartilage is prepared using a coring tool which makes a perfectly round hole in the bone in the area of damage. The hole is drilled to a size that fits the plug. Next the plug of normal cartilage is harvested from a non-weight bearing area of the knee and then implanted into the hole that was created in the damaged area. The size of the plug used should be slightly larger than the hole so that it fits into the position. This procedure allows the newly implanted bone and cartilage to grow in the defected area.
Possible complications of OATS include donor site morbidity causing pain, avascular necrosis, and fracture. Other complications such as hemarthrosis, effusion and pain may also occur. Following OATS rehabilitation is recommended by use of crutches and limiting the range of motion.
Orthobiologics are natural substances such as cells, tissue, blood components and growth factors that are harnessed to aid in the treatment of orthopedic injuries or conditions. They may be used to replace lost tissue, stimulate regeneration and healing, reduce pain and inflammation and improve joint function.
Orthobiologics may be obtained from your own body or from a donor. They may be administered in the form of injections or may require a surgical procedure. They may be used alone as conservative treatment or following orthopedic surgery to enhance results.
Orthobiologics can be used to treat:
Orthobiologics are recommended when rest, medications and physical therapy do not relieve symptoms and joint replacement surgery is not indicated. It may also be recommended following spine surgery.
The different types of orthobiologics include:
Platelet rich plasma (PRP): PRP is obtained from your own blood after it has been processed to concentrate platelets and certain white blood cells that enhance healing and reduce inflammation. PRP may be injected directly into the damaged tissue during an outpatient procedure or following repair surgery.
Bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC): BMAC is obtained after processing bone marrow that is removed from your pelvic bone. BMAC is rich in stem cells, which produce proteins and growth factors necessary for healing and reducing inflammation.
Adipose tissue: Adipose tissue or fat cells have remarkable healing and regenerative properties. It is typically obtained from your waist, processed to remove impurities and inflammatory components, and then injected at the site of injury.
Amniotic products: Amniotic tissue products such as amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid can reduce inflammation and promote healing in tissues due to their cellular content and presence of hyaluronic acid. Amniotic tissues support the fetus in the womb. They are obtained from a consenting healthy donor following an elective cesarean section delivery. These products are carefully screened before use. They are available as injections or patches.
Cartilage transplantation: Cartilage transplantation is a procedure to restore articular cartilage in a joint by transplanting it from another region of your body or using cartilage from a donor. Articular cartilage is the white tissue lining the ends of bones that form joints. It acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement. Articular cartilage damaged by injury or early osteoarthritis is replaced during this procedure.
The Brian Cole MD Knee Guide and Shoulder Guide are your own personalized injury APP's for your pocket. These APP's provide users with detailed information, treatment and identification of the most common injuries.